In “Culture and Anarchy”, Matthew Arnold takes a stand against the trends he noticed arising from modernism. This can be seen when he writes, “He who works for machinery, he who works for hatred, works only for confusion.” When Arnold mentions “He who works for machinery”, he brings to mind images of the harsh work environments workers suffered in the factory environment during the modern period. In this way, Arnold states that those working in the factory environment, which is such an integral component of the new, modern world Arnold was living in, are subjugated to hate filled task masters who seek to bring only confusion to society.
This sentiment is shared by Arnold’s poem, “Dover Beach”. This can be seen in the lines,, “Into his turbid ebb and flow Of human misery.” The “turbid ebb and flow” which Arnold references here could easily be read as a reference to the work days suffered by factory workers. In these instances, Arnold shows a strong lament for the state of modern life.